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EpISODE 85 The AUGMENTED 6TH (+6) CHORD PT. 2

HOSTS- Jeremy Burns, Matthew Scott Phillips

 

TYPE- Theory

 

DURATION- 53:00

 

BUMPER MUSIC- "Augment This" (Area 47)

ANNOUNCER- Mike Cunliffe

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DESCRIPTION

In episode 65, we discussed the Italian, French and German augmented 6th chords and their main functions. In this episode, we'll dig a little deeper into these chords and talk about some other functions and placement options that can really color your chord progressions!

KEY WORDS DIATONIC- When a triad, chord or melody consists of notes solely from the given key, it is considered to be DIATONIC. CHROMATIC- When a triad, chord or melody consists of notes from outside the given key, it is considered to be CHROMATIC. TONICIZATION- When a chord, other than the tonic of the given key, is temporarily given a tonic function. AUGMENTED 6TH CHORDS- These chords are built with a b6 and a #4. ITALIAN AUGMENTED 6TH CHORD- This chord is built with a b6 and a #4. It also includes the TONIC. FRENCH AUGMENTED 6TH CHORD- This chord is built with a b6 and a #4. It also includes the TONIC and the SUPERTONIC (scale degree 2). FRENCH AUGMENTED 6TH CHORD- This chord is built with a b6 and a #4. It also includes the TONIC and the flatted MEDIANT (scale degree b3). TONIC ( I )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 1 of the given key. SUPERTONIC ( ii )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 2 of the given key. MEDIANT ( iii )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 3 of the given key. SUBDOMINANT ( IV )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 4 of the given key. DOMINANT ( V )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 5 of the given key. SUBMEDIANT ( vi )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 6 of the given key. SUBTONIC ( VII )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree b7 of the given key. LEADING TONE ( viiø7 )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 7 of the major key or #7 of a minor key. SEVENTH ( 7 )- This would be the 4th chord tone added to a TRIAD. It will be a 7th above the root of the given chord. It can be major, minor, augmented or diminished. *It should be noted that all the above Roman numeral examples given were shown as uppercase (major) or lowercase (minor) as they relate to the MAJOR SCALE, as seen below: I - ii - iii - IV - V - vi - vii° - I In the MINOR SCALE, the diatonic chords will be built as seen below: i - ii° - III - iv - v - VI - VII - i EXAMPLES

Typically, any form of the AUGMENTED 6th (+6) precedes the DOMINANT (V) chord. It is said to have a PREDOMINANT function. Below, we will see a few examples where they behave a little differently.

+6 AS A NEIGHBOR CHORD OF V

-As we've discussed, a NEIGHBOR TONE moves up, or down, by step and returns to it's place of origin.

 

-In the example below, we see this German +6 chord acting as a NEIGHBOR CHORD to the V. It follows and returns to the V, thereby embellishing this predominant moment. Also, notice that the

"Gr+6" symbol is used both above (letter chords) and below (harmonic progression). We don't make a distinction, in this case, because they don't represent any scale degree.

+6 MOVING TO SECONDARY CHORDS

-Sometimes, another chord will come between the +6 and the V chord. These are often SECONDARY DOMINANT (V/V) or SECONDARY SEVEN (viiº/V)

chords.

 

-In the example below, we see this harmony move from a French +6 chord to a viiº/V before it lands on the V chord.

+6 MOVING TO A PASSING 6/4 CHORD

-While the +6 chord normally moves to the V, it can sometimes move to a PASSING I 6/4 chord (tonic chord with scale degree 5 in the bass voice). From there, it can move anywhere you wish.

 

-In the example below, we see the harmony move from a German +6 chord to a I 6/4 chord. One may expect this I 6/4 chord to move to a V. Instead, it moves to the IV.

DIFFERENT BASS POSITIONS

-The +6 chord is considered to be a "linear sonority" and doesn't really have a root. However, it often features the b6 in the bass because this tone wants to move down to scale degree 5 directly thereafter. -In the example below, we see a German +6 with a #4 (F#) in the bass. Notice, this tone still moves up to scale degree 5 in the following I 6/4 chord, as it normally would.

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