MUSIC STUDENT 101 HOME ABOUT US PODCASTS CONTACT US
EpISODE 73 HARMONIC Progression Part 7 (vii/V, vii/ii)

HOSTS- Jeremy Burns, Matthew Scott Phillips

 

TYPE- Ear Training

 

DURATION- 111:00

 

BUMPER MUSIC- "The Secondary Jig" (Area 47 Music)

ANNOUNCER- Mike Cunliffe

Listen
DESCRIPTION

Continuing where episode 63 left off, this episode will review our previous discussions on diatonic chords and secondary functions. We will now add the secondary seven of V and seven of ii (iiº) chords. Listen for the chord qualities and use your theory brain to find out how to decipher these chord progressions. Use this skill to learn songs faster and know music better!

KEY WORDS DIATONIC- When a triad, chord or melody consists of notes solely from the given key, it is considered to be DIATONIC. TONIC ( I )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 1 of the given key. SUPERTONIC ( ii )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 2 of the given key. MEDIANT ( iii )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 3 of the given key. SUBDOMINANT ( IV )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 4 of the given key. DOMINANT ( V )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 5 of the given key. SUBMEDIANT ( vi )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 6 of the given key. SUBTONIC ( VII )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree b7 of the given key. LEADING TONE ( vii° )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 7 of the major key or #7 of a minor key. SEVENTH ( 7 )- This would be the 4th chord tone added to a TRIAD. It will be a 7th above the root of the given chord. It can be major, minor, augmented or diminished. SECONDARY DOMINANT ( V/ )- This chord can act as a dominant function to a chord other than the tonic. *It should be noted that all the above Roman numeral examples given were shown as uppercase (major) or lowercase (minor) as they relate to the MAJOR SCALE, as seen below: I - ii - iii - IV - V - vi - vii° - I In the MINOR SCALE, the diatonic chords will be built as seen below: i - ii° - III - iv - v - VI - VII - i EXAMPLES VII of V (Vii/V) in Major

-See the second chord in the first measure. This chord is a diminished chord built on scale degree #4 (F#), in the bass and tenor voices.

 

-In the key of C major, the F#º is a CHROMATIC chord. It is the SECONDARY DOMINANT of the V chord (G major). The once natural F, is now an F#. It is acting as the LEADING TONE, moving up to the G (scale degree 5) in the chord that follows.

VII of V (Vii/V) in MINOR

-The viiº/V in minor is the same chord as it is in major. Again, this chord is a diminished chord built on scale degree #4 (F#) that resolves to scale degree 5 (G).

VII of ii (Vii/ii) in MAJOR

-See the second chord in the first measure. This chord is a diminished chord built on scale degree #1 (C#), in the soprano voice.

 

-In the key of C major, the C#º is a CHROMATIC chord. It is the SECONDARY DOMINANT of the ii chord (D minor). The once natural C, is now a C#. It is acting as the LEADING TONE, moving up to the D (scale degree 2) in the chord that follows.

VII of ii (Vii/ii) in MINOR

-Like the viiº/V example, the viiº/ii in minor is the same chord as it is in major.  Again, this chord is a diminished chord built on scale degree #1 (C#) that resolves to scale degree 2 (D). The difference is that we have a diminished chord passing to another diminished chord. That's okay!

LET'S LISTEN

In this episode, our first example features a V/V chord, rather than the SECONDARY SEVEN chord, our focus. For more on that, check out episode 63. Meanwhile, we will skip to the next (2nd) example for our notated aids. Key of C major!

Let's take four listens to identify this chord progression. Below is a good strategy on how to use your listens wisely for each time the progression is played.

1st LISTEN-THE BASS

Use this listen to focus on the bass line. In our first example, we hear the following scale degrees in the bass, beginning with scale degree 1 (C):

1 - 4 - #4 - 5 - 1

Notate it!

2nd LISTEN-THE HIGHEST NOTE Use this listen to focus on the melody, or the soprano voice. When you hear that note, try to identify what scale degree it is and where it goes from there. Sometimes singing (in your head), from the identified note down to the the tonic, can help zero in on what scale degree it is. In this case, we hear that scale degree 3 begins the following progression in the highest voice: 3 - 4 - b3 - 2 - 3 Notate it!

3rd LISTEN-THE THEORY BRAIN

Something harmonic is coming together! We now have enough information to ENGAGE OUR THEORY BRAIN and start making educated guesses at how this progression might develop. Here's an example of the process:

-1st CHORD- Has two notes from the tonic chord (C and E) and sounds like a major chord. The tonic is in the bass as well. Let's call it I. -2nd CHORD- Has the F note (scale degree 4) in the bass and the F note (scale degree 4) in the soprano. That doesn't tell our eyes that much. But listen! It sounds like a MAJOR chord. Let's call this a IV chord. -3rd CHORD- Has the F# note (scale degree #4) in the lower voice and Eb (scale degree b3) in the upper voice. It sounds a little strange and "crunchy". We can see, by the #4 and the b3, that some chromaticism has been added. This might be a foreign chord. If this is, in fact, an F#º chord, the Eb would make it a seventh chord. This might be a foreign chord. Let's entertain the idea that it might be a secondary leading tone seventh chord. Let's see what chord follows. -4th CHORD- We hear a major chord. The F# from the previous chord had moved up to a G note (scale degree 5). The Eb (scale degree b3) from the previous chord has moved down to D (scale degree 2). Since it's major, we know it's not a secondary leadinig tone chord (normally diminished). Only one diatonic chord contains those 2 scale degrees; the V chord. So we can safely suspect this to be a V chord and the previous chord a viiº/V chord. We can confirm that if the next chord is a I. -5th CHORD- Again, we hear a major chord. We have an C note (scale degree 1) in the bass and an E note (scale degree 3) in the soprano. We know that the previous chord, V, tends to move to I. This sounds pretty complete. Let's call this I.

4th LISTEN-CONFIRMATION

Ideally, this listen will be your confirmation listen. Check out all the voices you filled in and make sure they make sense with what you're hearing.

Here's what it will look like:

NOW LISTEN AS WE APPLY THIS APPROACH TO THE NEXT EXAMPLES

THINGS TO REMEMBER

-When trying to determine which scale degree is in the highest voice, try singing down the scale from that note. If you feel you've reached the TONIC on the 3rd note down, that note is the 3rd. If you can keep going, perhaps not.

 

-Try practicing progressions using these chords, using CHORALE or KEYBOARD styles.

 

-Don't neglect the MINOR keys while working on these progressions.

 

-Try to get good at singing "in your head" or to your self. When you hear a chord, try to arpeggiate the notes in your head.

 

-Try to get good at identifying the bass lines when listening to music. These will be the first that you will want to identify when taking your listening exams.

 

-Budget your listens wisely. First identify the lowest notes. Second, identify the highest notes. Use the third listen to engage your theory brain and then the fourth to confirm.

MUSIC STUDENT 101

© 2017 EVERYTHING BURNS PRODUCTIONS, LLC