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EpISODE 79 MODULATION TO DISTANTLY RELATED KEYS PT. 2

HOSTS- Jeremy Burns, Matthew Scott Phillips

 

TYPE- Theory

 

DURATION- TBD

 

BUMPER MUSIC- "TBD" (Area 47 Music)

ANNOUNCER- Mike Cunliffe

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DESCRIPTION

Picking up from where we left off on episode 71, we will now further our discussion on modulation to distantly related keys. The focus, on this show, will be the use of chromatic mediants!

KEY WORDS MODULATION- The act of changing from one key to another. CLOSELY RELATED KEY- A key that is either the relative major, or minor, of the established key or within a sharp or flat of the established key. DISTANTLY RELATED KEY- A key that is more than 2 accidentals away from the original key. PIVOT CHORD- This chord often directly precedes a modulation and can function in the original key as well as in the new key. It's function should typically be a PREDOMINANT function. PIVOT PITCH- This note can be a common tone that ties two chords, or keys, together. DIATONIC- When a triad, chord or melody consists of notes solely from the given key, it is considered to be DIATONIC. CHROMATIC- When a triad, chord or melody consists of notes from outside the given key, it is considered to be CHROMATIC. LINEAR- When a movement to a chord doesn't serve a particular function, it is said to be of a linear nature. COMMON TONE MODULATION- When we move to a new key while holding on to a note from the previous one, this note is the common tone in a common tone modulation. TONICIZATION- When a chord, other than the tonic of the given key, is temporarily given a tonic function. SECONDARY DOMINANT- When a V chord, other than the V chord of the given key, is temporarily given a DOMINANT function. SECONDARY SEVEN CHORD- When a viiº chord, other than the viiº chord of the given key, is temporarily given a LEADING TONE function. TONIC ( I )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 1 of the given key. SUPERTONIC ( ii )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 2 of the given key. MEDIANT ( iii )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 3 of the given key. SUBDOMINANT ( IV )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 4 of the given key. DOMINANT ( V )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 5 of the given key. SUBMEDIANT ( vi )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 6 of the given key. SUBTONIC ( VII )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree b7 of the given key. LEADING TONE ( vii° )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 7 of the major key or #7 of a minor key. SEVENTH ( 7 )- This would be the 4th chord tone added to a TRIAD. It will be a 7th above the root of the given chord. It can be major, minor, augmented or diminished. *It should be noted that all the above Roman numeral examples given were shown as uppercase (major) or lowercase (minor) as they relate to the MAJOR SCALE, as seen below: I - ii - iii - IV - V - vi - vii° - I In the MINOR SCALE, the diatonic chords will be built as seen below: i - ii° - III - iv - v - VI - VII - i Now that we've learned more about CHROMATIC chords. We have a greater canvas to work with. EXAMPLES 3RD RELATED TRIADS

-Chromatic third relationships occur when two triads, (each from different diatonic scales) are a M3 or m3 apart, or their inversions (m6 and M6, respectively).

-We have become familiar with DIATONIC MEDIANT relationships. One example is given below when I (C major) moves to iii (E minor). In the key of C major, all these notes are DIATONIC. They all belong to the key of C major. The relationship is MEDIANT because C major and E minor are based on root notes a THIRD apart (M3, in this case).

-Below, we have an example of a CHROMATIC MEDIANT relationship.  I (C major) moves to III (E major). In the key of C major, MOST these notes are DIATONIC. C, E and G (of C major) and E and B (of E major) are all within the key of C. However, that G# note (in the E major chord) is CHROMATIC. It is foreign to the key of C major. The relationship is MEDIANT because C major and E major are based on root notes a THIRD apart. The function for C major can be rightly identified as I. But the following E major chord has a function less obvious. If followed by a vi chord, it could be identified as V/vi. If not, it may be considered to be LINEAR. In which case, doesn't serve a function other than providing movement to the next harmony.

-There are 6 possible chromatic mediant (3rd) chords from any MAJOR chord. Notice that we are involving six chords (sub mediants), as well, because they are simply inverted thirds.

-There are also 6 possible chromatic mediant (3rd) chords from any MINOR chord, as seen below.

MODULATING TO KEYS RELATED BY CHROMATIC THIRDS -Though we are modulating to distantly related keys, this process can be pretty smooth with the use of COMMON TONE MODULATION (CTM). -We can use a common tone, from a chord in the first key, to act as a PIVOT PITCH. This pitch will also be present in the chord of the key we are modulating to. -Of course, a common tone is required for a CTM. So that gives us four possible CHROMATIC THIRD related keys to any MAJOR or MINOR key: MAJOR- VI, bVI, III, bIII MINOR- vi, nvi, iii, niii -In the case of DIATONIC 3RD related triads, there will be 2 common tones. -CTM modulations don’t always have to happen between tonic chords. This can occur between any chords, diatonic or not.

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