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EpISODE 71 MODULATION TO DISTANTLY RELATED KEYS PT. 1

HOSTS- Jeremy Burns, Matthew Scott Phillips

 

TYPE- Theory

 

DURATION- 66:57

 

BUMPER MUSIC- "Mode Swings" (Area 47 Music)

ANNOUNCER- Mike Cunliffe

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DESCRIPTION

Picking up from where we left off on episode 69, we will now learn how to modulate to distantly related keys using chords that are diatonic, or chromatic, in either key (or any combination thereof). Some pivot chords we will use to pull this off will include the German augmented 6 chord (Gr+6), the Neapolitan chord (N) and secondary seven diminished vii chord (viiº7 of ?). Let us invite a few more accidentals to the table, shall we? Join us!

KEY WORDS MODULATION- The act of changing from one key to another. CLOSELY RELATED KEY- A key that is either the relative major, or minor, of the established key or within a sharp or flat of the established key. PIVOT CHORD- This chord often directly precedes a modulation and can function in the original key as well as in the new key. It's function should typically be a PREDOMINANT function. DIATONIC- When a triad, chord or melody consists of notes solely from the given key, it is considered to be DIATONIC. CHROMATIC- When a triad, chord or melody consists of notes from outside the given key, it is considered to be CHROMATIC. TONICIZATION- When a chord, other than the tonic of the given key, is temporarily given a tonic function. SECONDARY DOMINANT- When a V chord, other than the V chord of the given key, is temporarily given a DOMINANT function. SECONDARY SEVEN CHORD- When a viiº chord, other than the viiº chord of the given key, is temporarily given a LEADING TONE function. TONIC ( I )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 1 of the given key. SUPERTONIC ( ii )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 2 of the given key. MEDIANT ( iii )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 3 of the given key. SUBDOMINANT ( IV )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 4 of the given key. DOMINANT ( V )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 5 of the given key. SUBMEDIANT ( vi )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 6 of the given key. SUBTONIC ( VII )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree b7 of the given key. LEADING TONE ( vii° )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 7 of the major key or #7 of a minor key. SEVENTH ( 7 )- This would be the 4th chord tone added to a TRIAD. It will be a 7th above the root of the given chord. It can be major, minor, augmented or diminished. *It should be noted that all the above Roman numeral examples given were shown as uppercase (major) or lowercase (minor) as they relate to the MAJOR SCALE, as seen below: I - ii - iii - IV - V - vi - vii° - I In the MINOR SCALE, the diatonic chords will be built as seen below: i - ii° - III - iv - v - VI - VII - i EXAMPLES CHROMATIC PIVOT CHORD MODULATIONS  There are three main types: 1) Chromatic diatonic- CHROMATIC in the first key, DIATONIC in the second. Below, we use the bVI as the borrowed chord (chromatic), in D major, and the IV chord (diatonic), in F major. D MAJOR: I - ii - IV - V - I - bVI F MAJOR: IV - V - I 2) Diatonic chromatic- DIATONIC in the first key, CHROMATIC in the second. Below, we use same chords in reveres. The IV chord (diatonic), in F major, becomes the bVI chord (chromatic), in D major. F MAJOR: I - ii - V - I - I - IV D MAJOR: bVI - V7 - I 3) Chromatic chromatic- CHROMATIC in both keys. Below, the viiº7/ii chord (chromatic), in D major, becomes the viiº7/vi chord (chromatic), in C# major. D MAJOR: I - IV - viiº7/ii C# MAJOR: viiº7/vi - iv - ii - V - I BELOW IS AN EXAMPLE OF HOW ONE MIGHT PROPERLY NOTATE THE ABOVE MODULATION. BUT WE LIKE OUR COLORS, SO WE'LL CONTINUE IN THE CURRENT FASHION!
WRITING MODULATIONS WITH NEAPOLITAN CHORDS (N) A quick and easy way to get to a distantly related key is the use of the NEAPOLITAN chord (N). Below we reinterpret the N6 chord of the first key, C major, as the V of the new key, Gb major. This took us to a key that is a b5 away from the original. C MAJOR: I - IV - N6 Gb MAJOR: V - I MODULATION BY ENHARMONIC REINTERPRETATION OF THE GERMAN AUGMENTED 6 CHORD (Gr+6) One can easily move to a distantly related key with the use of the GERMAN AUGMENTED 6 chord (Gr+6). Below we reinterpret the Gr+6 chord of the first key, C major, as the V7 of the new key, Db major. This took us to a key that is a b2 away from the original. Like all of these examples, you can also use the same chords to go back the way you came. C MAJOR: I - V - Gr+6 Db MAJOR: V7 - I One can also use this chord to go to a key of MEDIANT relation to the original. MODULATION BY ENHARMONIC REINTERPRETATION OF THE SECONDARY FULLY DIMINISHED 7 CHORD The reinterpretation of the FULLY DIMINISHED SEVEN CHORD (viiº7) can also be used to move to a distantly related key. Below we reinterpret the viiº7/V chord of the first key, C major, as the viiº7/V of the new key, C major. This took us to a key that is a b3 away from the original. Any note in the viiº7 chord can resolve up to a different V in the new key. Eb MAJOR: I - IV - viiº7/V C MAJOR: viiº7/V - V - I

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