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EpISODE 58 MODE MIXTURE AND BORROWED CHORDS

HOSTS- Jeremy Burns, Matthew Scott Phillips

 

TYPE- Theory

 

DURATION- 84:24

 

BUMPER MUSIC- "Mixed Motives" (Area 47 Music)

ANNOUNCER- Mike Cunliffe

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DESCRIPTION

We are bringing chromaticism to your doorstep! Today's special delivery? Mixed modes and borrowed chords! Learn how borrowing just two or three notes from a parallel key can allow for several new chords that can add intrigue to your progressions and help to smooth our your modulations.

KEY WORDS

DIATONIC- When a triad, chord or melody consists of notes solely from the given key, it is considered to be DIATONIC.

 

CHROMATIC- When a triad, chord or melody consists of notes that don't belong to the given key, it is considered to be CHROMATIC.

 

PARALLEL RELATIONSHIPS- Parallel keys, or (modes) share the same tonic (or final). C major and

C minor are considered to have a PARALLEL relationship.

 

MIXED MODE- This occurs when notes, in a passage of music, belong to a combination of different modes or scales.

 

BORROWED CHORD- This occurs when we use chords from a different key than the one we're in.

EXAMPLES As a reminder, here's a look at the diatonic chords of the MAJOR SCALE: I - ii - iii - IV - V - vi - vii° - I In the MINOR SCALE, the diatonic chords will be built as seen below: i - ii° - III - iv - v - VI - VII - i MODE MIXTURE

-When we use tones from a different mode than the one we are currently in, we are mixing modes.

 

-This can happen during a passage of music or for only an instance.

 

-A common way to mix modes is to borrow notes from a minor key, while in major, or vice versa.

This can often result in BORROWED CHORDS.

BORROWED CHORDS IN A MAJOR KEY
Borrowing the b6 note from MINOR, while in MAJOR, can result in 4 different borrowed chords: iiº, iiø7, iv, viiº7 -The viiº7 is very useful because it can tonicize a i chord (minor) or a I chord (major). Sometimes it will pass through a V or V7 before landing on the tonic. This is known, by some theorists, as SECONDARY MODE MIXTURE. -The iv in a major key can be used to prolong the tonic, as in the plagal cadence. Just as it's normal diatonic counterpart, the BORROWED iv will function as a predominant chord, in major. -The BORROWED iv6 chord (1st inversion) can aid in a descending bass line in a major key. Try this progression and listen: -The BORROWED iiº7 is more common than the BORROWED iiº because of it’s added tendency to move. -Another chord that is commonly used as a predominant is the BORROWED iiø7. -In most cases the b6 wants to move down, by a HALF STEP to 5. It is often approached by a natural 6 or by 5. In addition to the b6, borrowing the b3, and b7 from MINOR, while in MAJOR, can result in many different borrowed chords: -The bVI chord will often perform a similar predominant function as it’s diatonic counterpart. It contains 2 chromatic notes (b3, b6). It can also prolong the tonic. -Sometimes a bVI can occur in a DECEPTIVE CADENCE, replacing the vi. -The bIII and the bVII can occur but are kind of rare. -bIII is often seen being paired with a bVI, as it’s secondary dominant. -bVII can often facilitate movement to IV, in major. -Sometimes the minor i can occur in longer passages within a major key.
BORROWED CHORDS IN A MINOR KEY

-The HARMONIC MINOR (raised 7) and MELODIC minor ( raised 6 and 7) is fairly common.

 

-The PICARDY 3rd (common in music from the 1500’s-1750’s)- Beethoven's 5th begins in Cm but ends in C major.

 

-Some theorists suggest the IV chord to be a good borrowed chord in minor, when harmonizing with a RAISED 6 in a melodic minor melody.

MODULATIONS USING MODE MIXTURE

-Mode mixture can often herald a modulation.

 

-Mode mixture can also aid in modulation to distantly related keys.

THINGS TO REMEMBER -Practice writing progressions using distantly related keys, using mixed modes and borrowed chords. -The viiº7 can resolve to four possible tonics, acting as a SECONDARY SEVENTH CHORD (vii of). - bVII, bIII, and the bVI are rarely used, in major. So use them!

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