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EpISODE 55 SECONDARY LEADING TONE CHORDS

HOSTS- Jeremy Burns, Matthew Scott Phillips

 

TYPE- Theory

 

DURATION- 76:27

 

BUMPER MUSIC- "300º" (Area 47 Music)

ANNOUNCER- Mike Cunliffe

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DESCRIPTION

Just as you can use secondary dominant chords to aid in the movement to any diatonic chord, you can also use secondary leading tone chords for the same purpose. These chords can add intrigue, color and tension to any harmonic progression. We'll discuss how to identify them, how to spell them out and how to analyze them. Give them a listen. Give them a try.

KEY WORDS DIATONIC- When a triad, chord or melody consists of notes solely from the given key, it is considered to be DIATONIC. CHROMATIC- When a triad, chord or melody consists of notes from outside the given key, it is considered to be CHROMATIC. TONICIZATION- When a chord, other than the tonic of the given key, is temporarily given a tonic function. SECONDARY LEADING TONE- When a chord, other than the viiº chord of the given key, is temporarily given a LEADING TONE function. TONIC ( I )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 1 of the given key. SUPERTONIC ( ii )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 2 of the given key. MEDIANT ( iii )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 3 of the given key. SUBDOMINANT ( IV )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 4 of the given key. DOMINANT ( V )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 5 of the given key. SUBMEDIANT ( vi )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 6 of the given key. SUBTONIC ( VII )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree b7 of the given key. LEADING TONE ( viiø7 )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 7 of the major key or #7 of a minor key. SEVENTH ( 7 )- This would be the 4th chord tone added to a TRIAD. It will be a 7th above the root of the given chord. It can be major, minor, augmented or diminished. *It should be noted that all the above Roman numeral examples given were shown as uppercase (major) or lowercase (minor) as they relate to the MAJOR SCALE, as seen below: I - ii - iii - IV - V - vi - vii° - I In the MINOR SCALE, the diatonic chords will be built as seen below: i - ii° - III - iv - v - VI - VII - i EXAMPLES CHROMATICISM

-So far all the chords we have discussed have been diatonic. They've involved notes that were not originally in the scale. This will usually result in ACCIDENTALS.

 

-MELODIC and HARMONIC minor scales involve accidentals as well but those are still considered diatonic.

 

-CHROMATIC HARMONY (from the Greek root ‘chroma’= color) introduces chromatic notes, from outside of the given key signature.

 

SECONDARY LEADING TONE CHORDS ("vii of")

Just like we can use V to tonicize any diatonic, chord we can use the LEADING TONE chord to perform the same function.

Let's establish ourselves in the key of C major and observe the progression below.

Notice it is a I - IV - V - I progression. There are no accidentals. Every chord belongs to the key it's in.

The next example involves a bit of CHROMATICISM. We have the same chord progression but we've added a new chord (G#ø7). The F, from the IV chord, moves up to an F# in the chord that follows. This allows for movement, by half step, from the F to the G, in the ROOT of the V chord. This F# is the LEADING TONE of G. Harmonizing it with a DIMINISHED chord insures that the resolving G chord will give a sense of completion, even though it is not the TONIC. This G#ø7 chord is said to be a SECONDARY LEADING TONE chord because it resolves to the IV, rather than the tonic. In fact, it tonicizes the IV chord.

SYMMETRY AND THE FULLY DIMINISHED vii CHORD
The second chord in the 1st measure, below, is a viiº7/ii (C#º7). It contains the following notes: C# - G - E - Bb The second chord in the 3rd measure is a viiº7/ii (Eº7). It contains the following notes: C# - G - E - Bb So, here, the same chord has filled two different roles (viiº7/ii and viiº7/IV). It could've have also been and viiº7/ bvi or viiº/viiº. Because all of these notes are evenly spaced (by a minor 3rd), this chord is said to have SYMMETRY. Because it could go any of 4 ways, the FULLY DIMINISHED chord is more ambiguous than it's HALF DIMINISHED counterpart.
VOICE LEADING CONSIDERATIONS

Fortunately, the voice leading considerations for SECONDARY LEADING TONE chords are the same as they would be for any chord progression, when holding proper COUNTERPOINT in mind. Here are some highlights:

 

-Avoid PARALLEL OCTAVES.

-Avoid PARALLEL FIFTHS.

 

-The 7th of the LEADING TONE viiº7 or viiø7 chord should resolve down to the 3rd of the following

  chord. So try not to double the 7th to avoid PARALLEL OCTAVES.

 

-The ROOT of the LEADING TONE viiº7 or viiø7 chord should resolve up to the ROOT of the

  following chord. So try not to double the ROOT to avoid PARALLEL OCTAVES.

INVERSIONS

-Inversions make for more interesting bass lines and they help you to avoid PARALLEL motion.

 

-To review, for 7th chords, the inversion symbols are as follows:

THINGS TO REMEMBER

 

-The same rules of voice leading apply to the SECONDARY LEADING TONE chords as those that apply to DOMINANT and SECONDARY DOMINANT chords.

 

-Avoid doubling notes in 7th chords to avoid voice leading problems. If you want to play if safe, consider using all 4 tones of the 7th chord.

 

-Try practicing progressions using these chords, using CHORALE or KEYBOARD styles.

 

-Don't neglect the MINOR keys while working on these progressions.

 

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