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EpISODE 45 SECONDARY DOMINANTS Part 1 (V/V, V/IV)

HOSTS- Jeremy Burns, Matthew Scott Phillips

 

TYPE- Theory

 

DURATION- 65:17

 

BUMPER MUSIC- "Dark Side of the Rainbow" (Area 47 Music)

ANNOUNCER- Mike Cunliffe

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DESCRIPTION

Join us as we venture toward chromaticism with this discussion of secondary dominants. We will talk about how these chords can be used in the tonicization of chords other than the tonic, with their dominant function. In this episode, we will focus on the V of V (V/V) and the V of IV (V/IV).

KEY WORDS DIATONIC- When a triad, chord or melody consists of notes solely from the given key, it is considered to be DIATONIC. CHROMATIC- When a triad, chord or melody consists of notes from outside the given key, it is considered to be CHROMATIC. TONICIZATION- When a chord, other than the tonic of the given key, is temporarily given a tonic function. SECONDARY DOMINANT- When a chord, other than the V chord of the given key, is temporarily given a DOMINANT function. TONIC ( I )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 1 of the given key. SUPERTONIC ( ii )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 2 of the given key. MEDIANT ( iii )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 3 of the given key. SUBDOMINANT ( IV )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 4 of the given key. DOMINANT ( V )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 5 of the given key. SUBMEDIANT ( vi )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 6 of the given key. SUBTONIC ( VII )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree b7 of the given key. LEADING TONE ( vii° )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 7 of the major key or #7 of a minor key. SEVENTH ( 7 )- This would be the 4th chord tone added to a TRIAD. It will be a 7th above the root of the given chord. It can be major, minor, augmented or diminished. *It should be noted that all the above Roman numeral examples given were shown as uppercase (major) or lowercase (minor) as they relate to the MAJOR SCALE, as seen below: I - ii - iii - IV - V - vi - vii° - I In the MINOR SCALE, the diatonic chords will be built as seen below: i - ii° - III - iv - v - VI - VII - i EXAMPLES CHROMATICISM

-So far all the chords we have discussed have been diatonic. They've involved notes that were not originally in the scale. This will usually result in ACCIDENTALS.

 

-MELODIC and HARMONIC minor scales involve accidentals as well but those are still considered diatonic.

 

-CHROMATIC HARMONY (from the Greek root ‘chroma’= color) introduces chromatic notes, from outside of the given key signature.

 

V / V Below, we see a typical ii - V - I progression in the key of Eb. As you can see, there are no accidentals. This progression is DIATONIC.
The following example involves a bit of CHROMATICISM. We have raised the Ab (scale degree 4) a half step up to an A§. So now the diatonic F MINOR has become a chromatic F MAJOR. Because the II chord is a fifth above the V chord we will now refer to it as the V of V (V/V).
V / IV

Below, we see a typical I - IV progression. Because the I chord is a fifth above the IV, we can also call this a V of IV (V/IV).

To really give that I chord a DOMINANT feel, we have added the m7 to the D major chord below.  When we add the 7th to a I chord, it is typically a MAJOR 7 (M7) chord. Because this chord is a MAJOR MINOR 7 (Mm7) chord, it very clearly is being used to TONICIZE the following IV chord.

THINGS TO REMEMBER

- A cadential I 6/4 chord should really be thought of as a V chord with a couple of NON CHORD TONES (suspensions, specifically).

 

-The same rules of voice leading apply to the secondary dominants as those that apply to dominants.

 

-Where there is a secondary dominant, there will be secondary LEADING TONE.

 

-Try practicing progressions using these chords, using CHORALE or KEYBOARD styles.

 

-Don't neglect the MINOR keys while working on these progressions.

 

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