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EpISODE 32 7th Chords Part 1: (ii7, V7)

HOSTS- Jeremy Burns, Matthew Scott Phillips

 

TYPE- Theory

 

DURATION- 57:27

 

BUMPER MUSIC- "A Minor Set Back" (Area 47 Music)

ANNOUNCER- Mike Cunliffe

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DESCRIPTION

We've given the 7th chords a good listen. Now it's time to discuss the theory behind them and some of the conventions to consider while using them in part writing. This episode will focus on the ii7 and the V7 chords as well as their inversions. It's time to add a little spice to your chord progressions!

KEY WORDS DIATONIC- When a triad, chord or melody consists of notes solely from the given key, it is considered to be DIATONIC. SUPERTONIC ( ii )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 2 of the given key. DOMINANT ( V )- A note in a melody or a chord in a progression based on scale degree 5 of the given key. TENDENCY TONE- A note, within a chord, that has a strong urge to move to a certain note in the chord to follow. INVERSION- When a note, other than the ROOT of the chord, occupies the bass voice. EXAMPLES THE V7 CHORD (ROOT POSITION)

V

7

As you listen to this episode, you will hear us reference

SCALE DEGREES (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc...)

and CHORD MEMBERS (root, 3rd, 5th, 7th, etc...).

Be sure to not confuse them!

Below we have what was once a root position G major triad with an extra note added on top.

This F note is a minor 7th above the root note G. It is therefore considered the 7th of the chord.

You will notice that we are in the key of C MAJOR. The G note is scale degree 5 in this key.

This G7 chord is therefore considered to be a

V7 chord in the key of C. Notice the chord members and their positions:

The ROOT, the 3RD, the 5TH and the 7TH.

V

7

The V7 chord contains 2 TENDENCY TONES, that together create a TRITONE:

 

1-The 3rd of this chord (scale degree 7) wants to resolve UP to scale degree 1.

2-The 7th of this  chord (scale degree 4) wants to resolve down to scale degree 3.

 

These resolutions will occur when the V7 (DOMINANT) chord resolves to a

I (TONIC) chord.

 

It is difficult to resolve a ROOT POSITION V7 chord to a ROOT POSITION TONIC CHORD without breaking some voice leading rules

(parallel 5th or 8ths, for example).

 

We therefore often find find that smoother chord progressions can result if we omit one of the chord tones from the V7 chord. Should we do so, your first option should be the 5th of the chord (scale degree 2).

 

If you omit the 3rd, the chord loses it's QUALITY (major or minor).

If you omit the 7th, the chord ceases to be a 7th chord, looses one of it's TENENCY tones and, therefore,  a good bit of strength (resulting in a less fulfilling CADENCE.

 

We can also solve some of these issues by using INVERSIONS. Below, you will see the V7 chord in 3 possible INVERSIONS (1st, 2nd and 3rd) notice that the chord members (ROOT, 3rd, 5th and 7th) all maintain their functions and should observe the same considerations, when moving to the next chord.

THE V7 CHORD (1st inversion)

6

5

V

THE V7 CHORD (2nd inversion)

V

4

3

 

THE V7 CHORD (3rd inversion)

V

4

2

THE ii7 CHORD (ROOT POSITION)

ii

7

ii

7

THE ii7 CHORD (1st INversion)

ii

6

5

THE ii7 CHORD (2nd inversion)

ii

4

3

THE ii7 CHORD (3rd inversion)

ii

4

2

EPISODE MUSIC

 

 "A Minor Set Back"

  (Area 47 Music)

 

  Brian Maloy- drums

  Jeremy Burns- bass, guitar, piano

 

MUSIC STUDENT 101

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