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EpISODE 03-THEORY BASICS PART 2: RHYTHM

HOST- Matthew Scott Phillips

 

TYPE- Theory 101

 

DURATION- 15:17

 

BUMPER MUSIC- "Drums Only Forever", "Forever Only Drums" (Miguel Martinez)

 

ANNOUNCER- Mike Cunliffe

LISTEN
DESCRIPTION

Part 2 of 2, in our theory fundamentals series, this episode will cover the elements of rhythm. Learn about note values and their durations. Explore time signatures and how to distinguish simple and compound meter.

KEY WORDS

RHYTHM- Very closely tied to pulse, a regular repeated pattern of sounds that move music forward.

 

NOTE- A symbol used to signify the duration and pitch of a tone.

 

DOTTED NOTE- Lasts for the duration of the note plus half the duration of the that note.

 

METER- Grouping of beats into equal parts,based on stressed and unstressed beats.

 

MEASURE- One repetition of a pattern of stressed and unstressed beats.

 

METER SIGNATURE- A number representing the grouping of beat that comprise the meter.

 

DUPLE METER- A meter with one stressed beat and one unstressed beat.

 

TRIPLE METER- A meter with one stressed beat and two unstressed beats.

 

SIMPLE METER- When the pulses can be divided into 2's.

 

COMPOUND METER- When the pulses can be divided into 3's.

 

EXAMPLES

WHOLE NOTE

HALF NOTE

1            2             3             4

COUNT:      1              2              3               4

QUARTER NOTE

EIGHTH NOTE

1      +      2       +       3      +       4      +

1             2             3             4

A QUICK NOTE ON RESTS

In the following example, "DOTTED QUARTER NOTES", there are two symbols that aren't notes. These are called RESTS. A rest is the absence of a note, or simply a silence that spans the time that a note would normally occupy.

NOTE

REST

DOTTED QUARTER NOTE

DOTTED HALF NOTE

1            2            3             4

1    +    2    +    3    +    4    +

METER SIGNATURE (TIME SIGNATURE)

TOP NUMBER=Number of beats or pulses per measure.

BOTTOM NUMBER=What type of note gets the beat. Ex. 4=quarter note, 8=eighth note, etc.

Therefore, the above example represents FOUR QUARTER NOTES per measure, also known as COMMON TIME.

A QUICK NOTE ON DRUM NOTATION

The following examples will feature DRUM NOTATION, which is UNPITCHED. This is indicated by the two bars to the left of the 2/4 meter signature. It's very similar to regular notation, in terms of note values, but the pitch positions actually represent different pieces of the drum kit rather than notes. Here's an example of the drum notation we will be using:

These two bars (to the right), where a clef symbol would normally be, indicate an unpitched instrument.

< HI HAT

< SNARE

< KICK

SIMPLE METER

(BEATS, OR PULSES, CAN BE DIVIDED INTO 2's)

2/4 METER (CUT TIME)

1 stressed, 1 unstressed

1                        2

KICK

(stressed)

SNARE

(unstressed)

1                         2

3/4 METER

 1 stressed, 2 unstressed

1                2               3

KICK

(stressed)

HI HAT

(unstressed)

1                 2               3

4/4 METER (COMMON TIME)

1 stressed, 1 unstressed, 1 slightly stressed, 1 unstressed

1            2           3           4

KICK

(stressed)

HI HAT

(unstressed)

SNARE

(slightly stressed)

1             2           3            4

8 EIGHTH NOTES

1            +           2            +            3           +           4           +

16 SIXTEENTH NOTES

1     e     +     a      2      e     +     a     3      e     +     a     4      e     +      a

COMPOUND METER

(BEATS, OR PULSES, CAN BE DIVIDED INTO 3's)

6/8 METER

1 stressed, 2 unstressed, 1 slightly stressed, 2 unstressed

1        2        3       4        5        6         1        2        3       4        5        6

UNEQUAL METER

(BEATS CAN BE DIVIDED INTO 3's AND 2's)

5/8 METER

1 stressed, 2 unstressed, 1 slightly stressed, 1 unstressed

1         2         3         4         5

1          2        3          4         5

5/8 METER (different grouping)

1 stressd, 1 unstressed, 1 slightly stressed, 2 unstressed

1          2        3          4         5

1          2         3          4         5

TRIPLET

(notes grouped in 3, in simple meter)

DUPLET (notes grouped in 2, in compound meter)

THINGS TO REMEMBER

-Be able to distinguish the difference between a NOTE and a DOTTED NOTE.

 

-Each note has a complimentary REST. Try to memorize these and their counter parts.

 

-Familiarize yourself with UNPITCHED NOTATION or, as in this case, DRUM NOTATION. You may have to use it or be asked to analyze it in the near future.

 

-Familiarize yourself with all varieties of METER SIGNATURES or TIME SIGNATURES, including SIMPLE, COMPLEX and UNEQUAL METERS.

 

-Be able to distinguish a DUPLET from a TRIPLET.

EPISODE MUSIC

 

 "DRUMS ONLY FOREVER"

 (Area 47 Music)

 Drums- Miguel Martinez

 

 

"DRUMS FOREVER ONLY"

 (Area 47 Music)

 Drums- Miguel Martinez

MUSIC STUDENT 101

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